Neanderthal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia during the last ice age. They seem to have been well adapted to extreme cold, but appear to have had difficulty adapting to climatic changes near the end of the ice age.
The first Neanderthal fossils were found in 1856 near Düsseldorf in the Neanderthal, Germany. Their characteristic style of stone tools is called the Mousterian Culture (middle paleolithic), after another prominent archaeological site.
Scientists now believe that Neanderthal Man was not related to Homo Sapien.