Monday, June 4, 2012

Facts about Cholas


Cholas were the most civilised race of the south. It is believed that this dynasty was founded by Karikala. Chola empire was called Cholamandalam. It included in itself Trichnopoly, Tanjore and some districts of Mysore and Madras (Now Chennai). Kaveripattam was its capital. The real founder of the Chola dynasty of Tanjore was Vijayalaya, a feudatory of the Pallavas. His dynasty rose to its eminence and lasted for more than two centuries. Chola empire reached its zenith during the reigns of Rajaraja (985-1014) and his son, Rajendra I (1014-1041)

Official Language: Tamil
Capitals: Early Cholas:- Poompuhar,Urayur; Medieval Cholas:-Pazhaiyaarai, Thanjavur, Gangaikonda,Cholapuram
Government: Monarchy
King: Vijayalaya Chola - 848-871, Rajendra Choal III-126-1279
Rajaraja's majore achievements were :-
1. conquering several trans-Ganga kingdoms and assuming the title of Gangai Kondachola
2. founding a new capital called Gangai Kondacholapuram
3. conquering the whole of Ceylon or Sri Lanka
4. Indianisation of several lands of the south-East Asia
5. defeating the kings of Sumatra in a naval campaign and annexing a part of Sumarata kingdom to his kingdom
Chola Administration :
Of all the South Indian dynasties, the Cholas have left most detailed information on the working of the administration set up by them. At the head of the state stood the king. He was the pivot round which the machinery of the state moved. During the reigns of Rajaraja I and his son, royal orders could be proclaimed only after these had been confirmed by the chief secretary (Olainayakam) and another highly responsible officer known as the Perundaram. Nagaram was an assembly of merchants. It belonged to localities where merchants and traders were important.

For more interesting topics related to archaeology, visit archaeology excavations.

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